LED lamps — what is it, device, pros and cons, types, how to choose?


LED lamps - what is it, device, pros and cons, types, how to choose?

Conventional light bulbs have a spiral, which, when heated, begins to glow. Energy-saving LED lamps of the latest generation work on a different principle. It is worth figuring out how they differ, how to choose them and whether it is worth buying them to replace lighting equipment.

What are LED lamps?

The main source of light in energy-saving devices are miniature light bulbs — LEDs. These semiconductor elements convert current into light radiation. LED lamps have a long service life, but they have a number of disadvantages that you should be aware of when choosing light bulbs. The power supply for the operation of the diodes is installed individually in each lamp, it converts the voltage of 220 V in ordinary sockets into a small one, which is necessary for the lamps to operate at 6/12 V.

LED lamp device

Up to several dozen light bulbs are installed in each case, their number may vary and depends on the power of the device. The bases of LED lamps have standard sizes, which allows them to be used in any lamps and not to resort to changes in electrical wiring. The design is simple and includes the following elements:

  1. Diffuser or reflector, which has the form of a mirror hemisphere and is necessary to increase the angle of the light flux.
  2. A set of LEDs, the number of which in different lamps varies from a few pieces to several dozen.
  3. Aluminum alloy printed circuit board for efficient heat dissipation.
  4. A radiator that performs the function of maintaining the operating temperature inside the device.
  5. Capacitors to eliminate ripple on LEDs.
  6. Driver for voltage stabilization inside the device.
  7. A polymer coating that reaches the base and is a protection against electrical breakdowns.
  8. Base for screwing the lamp into the socket.

lamp device

Pros and cons of LED lamp

Replacement of light sources in apartments and offices is happening everywhere. The advantages of LEDs include:

Low power consumption, which, compared to other lamps, makes LED ceiling lamps a profitable purchase. Long service life distinguishes LED lamps from analogues, they break in case of poor assembly. It is possible to repair the device, this quality is an important advantage that distinguishes LED lamps from others. Their disadvantages can be considered:

  • high cost;
  • heat generation during poor-quality operation of the radiator in the lamp;
  • not always comfortable color temperature.

Which is better — LED or energy-saving lamp?

When such a question arises, energy-saving lamps usually mean fluorescent lamps. They also have a long service life and consume a minimum amount of energy. At the same time, they have significant drawbacks in comparison with high-quality LED lamps: flickering, which negatively affects vision, the complexity of disposal, potential harm to health and heating of the case.

Types of LED lamps

Such lighting devices have a clear classification, and it is easy to separate them by type. Depending on the type of application, they are street and home, automotive and industrial. According to the type of design, LED lamps are divided into general use, directional light and spots — linear models for lighting trading floors and offices. Depending on the type of base, new generation LED lamps are divided into two types: low-voltage and high-voltage. According to the type of case, the products are divided into:

  • point;
  • Spotlights

  • spotlights;
  • led spotlights

  • ribbons;
  • LED strips

  • panels.
  • LED panels

How to choose an LED lamp?

Any master can calculate the parameters of home lighting. The exact number and power of LED lamps must correspond to the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe room. Lux is a measure of the number of lumens of illumination per 1 m². Depending on the type of room, the number of lux may vary. When calculating the final value, it is worth adding the brightness of all the bulbs in the chandelier. There are mobile applications for determining the brightness of light in a room, such as Sensor Sense. The approximate value of lux for different rooms corresponds to the parameters:

  • in the bedroom — 100 lux;
  • in the hallway — from 50 to 100 lux;
  • in the dining room and living room — from 100 to 200 lux;
  • in the bathroom — from 50 to 200 lux;
  • in the office — 300 lx.


LED lamp color temperature

An important characteristic experts call the color temperature. The level of comfort in the room where the lighting is installed depends on this parameter, which LED lamps are better for a house with a warm or cold glow, you must decide on your own. Light sources are divided by color into three groups: warm, daylight and cold. The color temperature affects a person: a warm glow relaxes and is suitable for a bedroom, while a cold one tones up, LED lamps of this type are advised to be installed in work areas.

Shapes of LED lamps

Light bulbs of various shapes can be found on the LED products market. Options for installation in standard chandeliers and sconces are equipped with E14 and E27 socles. LED spotlights for installation in stretch and false ceilings have pin connectors. Such a base is marked with the letter G with numbers that indicate the diameter or distance between the pins. There are several forms:

  1. «Pear» — one of the most famous forms of LED lamps for the home. Such light sources are similar to the well-known incandescent lamps that were used back in the USSR. Spot LEDs in them differ in the glow angle of 180 °.
  2. LED lamp Pear

  3. Form «Candle» suitable for interior decoration in retro style. A wide dispersion angle allows such lamps to be screwed in with the cartridge down. Such compact lamps look good in nightlights, candelabra. Their power is not very large.
  4. led candle lamp

  5. LED lamps «Corn» are called so due to the similarity with the cob of a well-known grain crop. Spotlights are arranged in rows on a cylindrical device. Due to the multidirectionality of the diodes, the light scattering angle in such lamps is 300 °.
  6. led lamp corn

Rating of LED lamps

Modern technologies do not stand still. Manufacturers are trying to surprise customers and release new types of lamps; “smart bulbs” have already appeared on the market, connected via a Wi-Fi network and controlled remotely using a special program. By answering the question of which LED lamps are of the highest quality, you can choose the perfect product for arranging your home.

  1. The German company Osram is known far beyond the borders of its country and is famous for its quality products in the lighting market.
  2. Philips is known in the electrical market and provides a wide range of products. A LED table lamp from this company can be a bargain. Shapes, color temperature, cartridge options are presented in a wide range.
  3. The European quality level is supported by Gauss products. Soft light without flicker, a variety of shapes and sizes distinguish LED lamps from this manufacturer. Branded product packaging is the hallmark of the company.

How to connect an LED lamp?

LED lamps have replaced fluorescent lamps and are loved for their positive characteristics. Replacing the ceiling LED lamps that are out of order is done in a matter of minutes, for this it is not necessary to have an electrician’s diploma.

  1. First, the mains voltage is turned off.
  2. Make sure the bulb is rated for 220V.
  3. After making sure that the size of the base in the cartridge matches the parameters of the lamp, you can start screwing it in.
  4. When installing LED lamps in a stretch ceiling, special thermal rings are used to prevent heating of the ceiling covering fabric.
  5. After the work is completed, the voltage in the room is turned on.

Why is the LED light blinking?

The flickering of LED lamps is an unpleasant feature that can irritate human eyes. There may be several reasons for this phenomenon. Understanding why the LED lamp is flashing is necessary in order to fix the problem in time and maintain health.

  1. Cheap LED lamps are equipped with inexpensive parts that can not cope with the effects of the electrical circuit.
  2. When the light is off, the flickering of the lamp indicates a wiring fault. In this case, it is worth checking where the phase is connected in the junction box. It is considered correct if the phase wire is connected to some contact of the switch, and not directly to the lamp.
  3. Low voltage causes the lamp to flicker. The way out of this situation may be to install a stabilizer that will maintain the same voltage in the network.

Why does the LED lamp glow after being turned off?

Many owners have noticed that LED bulbs continue to glow after being turned off. This does not pose a danger to people, but reduces the life of LED lamps. There may be several reasons for this phenomenon.

  1. The illuminated switch to which the lamp is connected contributes to its burning after the circuit is opened. The switch should be replaced with another model.
  2. Design features that appear in inexpensive models. The LED lamp should be replaced with a quality model in this case.
  3. Wiring problems are the most annoying cause, which may require opening the walls and replacing the wires.

How to disassemble the LED lamp?

Modern devices are simple, they do not require special skills for disassembly. Repair of LED lamps can be done by a home master who has a minimum set of tools. A knife, screwdriver, and any indicator you have is all that is needed for disassembly.

  1. Remove the diffuser by inserting a knife blade between the plastic lamp body and the glass.
  2. Determine the health of the fuse by «ringing» it with a measuring device. If the fuse is defective, it must be replaced.
  3. Details on the board should be carefully examined, swollen capacitors should be replaced with serviceable ones.
  4. For further disassembly of the light bulb, it is necessary to remove the board by unscrewing the mounting bolts.
  5. Pulling on the top of the lamp, you need to remove it and check the contacts that connect the base to the board. If necessary, resoldering of contacts is carried out.
  6. Assemble the lamp in reverse order.


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